Object = F8
Vertex = F9
Edge = F10
Face = F11
Convert selection = Hold ctrl while pressing corresponding key
Grow/shrink = Shift + >/<
Add = Ctrl+Shift Remove = Ctrl
Toggle = Shift (inverts selection)
Paint select = Toolbox / ctrl+shift+rmb - select - drag select. Hold 'B' and drag lmb/mmb to change brush size.
Select ring = (Maya 2k9) select edge then press up/down to ring, and left/right to pick walk.
Select loop = (Maya 2k9) Edge = Double click edge Face = Partial: Select face and then shift+double click end face to loop to.
Full: After selecting two faces press right arrow to select complete loop, and then left/right to pick walk.